Public Health: Definition, Services, Nutrition and 10 Jobs

Public Health: Definition, Services, Nutrition and 10 Jobs

The medical approach that is concerned with the community’s overall health is “public health” which refers to the well-being of the community.

public health

Public health definition:

“Health care is important to all of us part of the time, but it is important to all of us all of the time”.

Moreover, it is described as “the art and science of avoiding disease, extending life, and improving health via society’s efforts” (Acheson, 1988; WHO). Activities aimed at strengthening PH (public health) capacity and services attempt to create conditions that allow individuals to stay healthy, enhance their health and wellbeing, or prevent their health from deteriorating.

Also, Public health is concerned with all aspects of health and well-being, not only the eradication of specific illnesses. Many activities, such as health campaigns, aim to create different groups. In addition to that, it also includes personal services to individuals, such as immunizations, behavioral counseling, or health advice.

Public Health Services:

The healthcare system is divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Also, sub Centres and Primary Health Centres are primary health care facilities (PHCs).

Furthermore, Community Health Centres (CHCs) and smaller Sub-District hospitals are available at the secondary level. Finally, the tertiary level of government-provided public care, which includes Medical Colleges and District Hospitals, is the highest degree of government-provided public care.


  1. Sub-centers:

A sub-center is intended to serve severely remote regions, with the national government covering all costs. Health professionals must be at least two (male and female) to service a population of 5000 people, according to regulations (or 3000 in a remote, dangerous location).

Furthermore, for a longer-term impact, sub-centers also strive to teach rural communities about healthy practices.

  1. Primary Health Care Centers:

Primary Health Centres (PHCs) are bigger health clinics staffed with physicians and paramedics are in rural regions of 30,000 or more (20,000 in isolated areas).

Also, for more difficult illnesses, patients might are for PHCs from local sub-centers. PHCs are funded by state governments rather than the federal government, which is a significant distinction from sub-centers.

PHCs also enhance health education by putting a greater emphasis on preventative measures.

  1. Community Health centers:

State governments also support Community Health Centers, which take patients recommended from Primary Health Centers. It has a population of 120,000 people in urban areas and 80,000 people in rural regions.

These agencies’ patients might go to regular hospitals for additional treatment. As a result, CHCs are also known as first referral units, or FRUs, and are mandated to provide obstetric treatment, newborn/childcare, and blood storage at all hours of the day, every day of the week.

  1. Hospitals in District:

District hospitals are the ultimate referral centers for the public health system’s primary and secondary levels. In 2010, only 605 hospitals were registered in India’s 640 districts, although each district is required to have at least one hospital.

Depending on population need, there are usually between 75 and 500 beds available. Also, modern equipment and relationships with local blood banks are frequently lacking at these district hospitals.

  1. Medical Colleges and Research Institutes:

The national government owns and controls the All-India Institutes of Medical Sciences. These are specialist referral hospitals with specific equipment. AIIMS New Delhi, Bhopal, AIIMS Bhubaneshwar, AIIMS Jodhpur, AIIMS Raipur, AIIMS Patna, and AIIMS Rishikesh are the only All India Institutes that are currently operational.

A Regional Cancer Centre is a cancer treatment facility and research center that is jointly managed by the federal and state governments. Government Medical Colleges serve as referral hospitals and are owned and governed by the various state governments.

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Initiatives by the Government:

Here are some Public Health Jobs:

  1. Health Educator:

People learn about the numerous components of behavior that promote health and wellness from health educators. They create programs to motivate individuals to make healthy choices.

  1. Community Health Workers:

Community health professionals wear several hats, but they all strive toward the same goal: to improve people’s quality of life by teaching, encouraging, and supporting healthy behavior and wellbeing in their communities.

They inform the public of the dangers linked with the specific issues impacting certain areas. More significantly, they advocate healthier choices while guiding people to the assistance they require to solve their difficulties.

Whatever a community is dealing with, whether it’s drug addiction, poor nutrition, and inactivity, alcohol misuse, or the use of tobacco and vaping products, community health professionals are on the front lines, addressing it head-on and striving to find answers.

  1. Epidemiologist can be an option.

An epidemiologist investigates the origins of illnesses and other public health problems in order to prevent them from spreading or reoccurring. They then inform public health officials and the general public about their results.

  1. Bio-statistician:

A biostatistician analyses and interprets data linked to public health and then derives conclusions from it using mathematical approaches. Among the things they do are:

  • Determines the issues that need to be addressed
  • Determines which information is required to solve the problem.
  • Determine the most effective data collection strategies.
  • Create surveys and/or experiments to gather information.
  • Analyze data and interpret it.
  1. Safety and Occupational Health Specialist:

Environmental health directors teach, train, and regulate government environmental practices in both private and public enterprises. These rules ensure that the water, food, and air in a specific area are of high quality.

  1. Clinical Research Coordinator:

Typically, a clinical research coordinator works under the supervision of a clinical principal investigator. The CRC is responsible for supporting, facilitating, and coordinating clinical trial operations at the site, and plays an essential role in all clinical trials.

  1. Non-Profit Organization Director:

The executive director of a nonprofit organization is in charge of all of the organization’s departments, including marketing, program development, fundraising, human resources, and accounting. Executive directors have the authority to supervise a variety of lower-level executives.

  1. Research assistant can be a good choice:

In most cases, research assistants operate in laboratories, analyzing data from clinical trials and surveys. You could work on research topics in a public health environment that connects to PH. It includes water contamination or disease dissemination.

  1. Healthcare Consultant:

A healthcare consultant is a management analyst who works in the healthcare industry. These experts, on the other hand, can work.

  1. Hospital Administrator:

A hospital administrator is in charge of planning, directing, and coordinating medical and healthcare services. This individual can oversee an entire institution, a specialized clinical sector, or a hospital practice.

Public Health Nutrition:

The Public Health Nutrition (PHN) specialty integrates nutrition and social and behavioral science concepts and methods to create, administer, and evaluate programs and policies that promote optimum nutrition, population health, and well-being.

The Ph.D. in Population Health Sciences program offers this area of expertise. Quantitative and qualitative techniques, program creation and assessment, health inequalities, health behavior change, and health policy are all skills that doctoral candidates with a PHN concentration will have. Formal coursework, seminars, qualifying examinations, and a dissertation are all included in the curriculum.

You will obtain extensive academic and applied expertise in five major skill areas as a doctorate student concentrating in Public Health Nutrition:

  • Principles and science of nutrition
  • Science to practice translation
  • Skills in analysis and research methodologies
  • Leadership and policy
  • Cultural awareness

Common Public health issues:

  1. Cardio Vascular disease:

According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular illnesses, particularly heart disease and stroke, are the leading causes of mortality worldwide (WHO). Coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular illness are all common heart disorders.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes:

Diabetes is yet another leading cause of mortality throughout the world. When the pancreas does not generate enough insulin (Type 1 diabetes) or when the body cannot digest insulin, the disease develops (Type 2 diabetes).

  1. Hypertension:

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is another sign of obesity and a major factor in heart disease. High blood pressure screenings are part of standard preventive care regimens.

  1. Schizoaffective Disorder:

Symptoms of schizophrenia (such as delusions or hallucinations) and mood problems coexist in schizoaffective disorder (such as depression or mania). Disorganized thinking and a gloomy mood are other symptoms of the disease.

  1. Clinical Depression – Silent Killer:

Clinical depression is a serious, long-term mental illness. In addition to that, loss of appetite, energy, restlessness, and interest in activities are all symptoms of depression. As well depression, if left untreated, can lead to sickness, exhaustion, and even suicide.

  1. Borderline Personality Disorders:

BPD (borderline personality disorder) is a mental health disease in which people have trouble controlling their emotions and behaviors.

  1. The Opioid Crisis:

The most common cause of drug overdose fatalities is opioid addiction. However, overprescribing of popular prescription opioids like hydrocodone (Vicodin) and oxycodone is to blame for most of the current opioid problem (OxyContin or Percocet).

  1. CNS Depressant Abuse:

Anxiety, panic attacks, sleep problems, and tension are all treated with central nervous system depressants or sedatives. Also, Barbiturates and benzodiazepines (Valium, Librium, and Xanax) are CNS depressants (Mebaral and Nembutal).


In the conclusion, public health is a major issue in India. However, India is now showing excellent progress in the health care field. An example of the biggest and most recent progress in the public health sector is the vaccination drive.

The CoVID vaccination program is one of the largest vaccination drives and we are indeed making it successful. Hence, get your vaccine shot soon and help in stopping the spread of Coronavirus.

Here are the 10 public health jobs in India.

  1. Health Educator
  2. Community Health Worker
  3. Epidemiologist
  4. Bio-statistician
  5. Safety and Occupational Health Specialist
  6. Clinical Research Coordinator
  7. Non-profit Organization Director
  8. Research Assistant
  9. Healthcare Consultant
  10. Hospital Administrator

Furthermore, this article talks about public health services, initiatives by the Government, and some of the most common public health issues in detail. The public health issues include the following diseases or conditions.

  1. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  2. Type-II Diabetes
  3. Hypertension
  4. Schizoaffective Disorder
  5. Clinical Depression
  6. Borderline Personality Disorder
  7. The Opioid Crisis
  8. CNS Depressant Abuse

Related Questions :

  • What exactly is public health?

The science of protecting and promoting people’s and communities’ health is known as public health. Promoting healthy lifestyles, investigating disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing, and responding to infectious diseases are all part of this effort.

  • What is the role of public health?

Public health promotes the well-being of the entire population, assures its security and protects it from infectious disease and environmental risks, and assists in ensuring population access to safe and high-quality care.

  • What are examples of public health?

Educating the public about healthier choices, promoting physical activity and fitness, preventing disease outbreaks and the spread of infectious diseases, ensuring safe food and water in communities, preparing for emergencies, preventing injury, and fluoridating water for oral and dental health are all examples of public health efforts. as well as establishing smoke-free zones and discouraging tobacco usage.

  • What is public health paper?

Public Health is an interdisciplinary, international peer-reviewed journal. It publishes original research papers, reviews, and brief reports on all aspects of public health science, philosophy, and practice.

  • Which is the Official Journal of Public Health?

The Royal Society for Public Health’s official journal and a sibling publication to Public Health in Practice. Public Health is an interdisciplinary, international peer-reviewed journal. It publishes original research papers, reviews, and brief reports on all aspects of public health science, philosophy, and practice.

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