Diabetes: 2 Major Types, Symptoms, Ketoacidosis-Retinopathy


Diabetes: 2 Major Types, Symptoms, Ketoacidosis-Retinopathy

Introduction to Diabetes:

Diabetes is a condition in which your blood glucose, commonly known as blood sugar, is too high. The major source of energy for everyone is blood glucose, which comes from the food you eat.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which aids glucose absorption into cells for use as energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t produce enough — or any — insulin, or it doesn’t use it properly. Glucose is there even in your circulation and does not reach your cells as a result.

Too much glucose in your blood might result in health issues over time. Although to date there is no cure for this condition, you may take efforts to manage it and stay healthy.

It is also referred to as “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These phrases imply that someone does not have it or has a milder form of the disease, yet it affects everyone.

Types of Diabetes:


The production of insulin gets pause when a person has type 1 diabetes. The immune system assaults and kills the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Type 1 is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can strike anybody at any age. To stay alive, people with type 1 are recommended for everyday intake of insulin.


Your body does not manufacture or utilize insulin well if you have type 2 diabetes. It can strike at any age, including infancy. This type, on the other hand, is more common in middle-aged and older persons. It is the most prevalent type.

Dark patches of skin in the armpits and neck folds might be a sign of type 2. Because it takes longer to diagnose, you may have symptoms such as pain or numbness in your feet at the time of diagnosis.

Gestational Diabetes:

During pregnancy, some women acquire gestational diabetes. This type usually ends after a baby’s birth. If you’ve experienced it, though, you’re more likely to acquire type 2 later in life. It’s possible that diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is truly type 2.

Diabetes Symptoms:

The severity of diabetes symptoms depends on how high your blood sugar is. Type 2 people, don’t show any symptoms usually. Symptoms of type 1 are more severe and rapid.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of type 1 and type 2:

  • Thirst increases
  • Urination on a regular basis
  • Hunger to the point of death
  • Weight loss that isn’t explained
  • Ketones in the urine, also ketones are a result of muscle and fat breakdown that occurs when there isn’t enough insulin available
  • Fatigue\Irritability
  • Vision is hazy
  • Sores which take a long time to heal
  • Infections that occur often, such as gum or skin infections, as well as vaginal infections

Type 1 can strike at any age, although it is more common in childhood and adolescence. Type 2, which is the most prevalent, can strike at any age, though it is more frequent in those over 40.

Causes of Diabetes:

Causes of Type-I:

Type 1 is caused by the immune system that attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Because the body attacks itself, this is known as an autoimmune reaction or autoimmune cause.

There are no known causes, although the following factors may have a role:

  • Infection caused by a virus or bacterium
  • Toxic chemicals in food
  • A component that has yet to be identified is generating an autoimmune response.

Causes of Type-II:

The causes of type 2 are generally complex, meaning that more than one factor is at play. A family history of type 2 means you are at more risk.

Type 2 is the most common form in people.

It has a number of risk factors, all of which enhance the likelihood of getting the disease.

These are some of them:

  • Obesity
  • Sedentary behavior is harmful to one’s health.
  • Getting older
  • a poor diet

Cause of Gestational Diabetes:

The origins of gestational diabetes, commonly known as pregnancy diabetes, are unclear. There are, however, many risk factors that enhance the likelihood of having this condition:

  • Gestational diabetes runs in the family
  • Obese or overweight
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • I had a big baby that weighed more than 9 pounds.

Other causes:

There is a slew of other factors that might lead to diabetes. The following are some of them:

Diabetes is the result of pancreatitis or pancreatectomy. Pancreatitis and also pancreatectomy, are well known to raise the risk of diabetes. Obesity-related insulin resistance is one of the core causes of PCOS, and it may also raise the risk of pre-diabetes and type 2.

Cushing’s syndrome refers to a condition that affects the adrenal glands. This condition causes an increase in cortisol production, which leads to higher blood glucose levels. Diabetes can be a result of an excess of cortisol.

Patients with glucagonoma may develop it as a result of a lack of balance between insulin and glucagon production levels.

Steroid diabetes (glucocorticoid diabetes) is an uncommon kind of diabetes caused by long-term usage of glucocorticoids.

Also Read: Keto Diet: What is it and its Types, Keto Food and Keto

Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a severe diabetic complication that happens when your body creates excessive amounts of blood acids called ketones.

When your body is unable to create enough insulin, the disease develops. Insulin is a hormone that aids in the entry of sugar (glucose), which is a primary source of energy for your muscles and other tissues.

When you don’t have enough insulin, your body starts breaking down fat for energy. If left untreated, this process results in a build-up of acids in the circulation known as ketones, which can progress to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis appear fast, sometimes within 24 hours. These signs and symptoms may be the earliest indicators of diabetes for some people. You may have seen the following:

  • A thirst that is excessive
  • Urination on a regular basis
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • stomach ache
  • Weakness or exhaustion
  • Breathing problems
  • Breath that smells like fruit
  • Confusion

When to go for a checkup:

  • Check your blood sugar level frequently if you’re sick or anxious, or if you’ve just had a sickness or accident. You might also use a urine ketones testing kit that is available over-the-counter.
  • If you have any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor right once.
  • You’re vomiting and can’t eat or drink anything.
  • Your blood sugar level is over the desired range and is not responding to therapy at home.
  • The amount of ketone in your urine is moderate to high.

Emergency check-up in the case when:

  • Your blood sugar level is regularly greater than 300 mg/dL, or 16.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).
  • You have ketones in your urine and can’t get in touch with your doctor.
  • Excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, stomach discomfort, weakness or exhaustion, shortness of breath, and fruity-scented breath are all indications and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

The cells that make up your muscles and other tissues rely on sugar for energy. Insulin lets sugar enter your cells normally.

Your body can’t utilize sugar efficiently for energy if you don’t have enough insulin. This causes the production of hormones that break down fat for fuel, resulting in ketones, which are acids. Ketones in the blood build-up and eventually “spillover” into the urine.

It is usually triggered by:

  • An ailment. Your body may generate greater amounts of certain hormones, such as adrenaline or cortisol, as a result of an infection or other disease. Unfortunately, these hormones work in opposition to insulin, which can result in diabetic ketoacidosis. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are two of the most prevalent causes.
  • Insulin treatment has a flaw. Inadequate insulin therapy missed insulin doses, or a faulty insulin pump might leave you with too little insulin in your system, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Other possible factors are:

  • physical or psychological trauma
  • Stroke or heart attack
  • Alcohol or drug addiction, particularly cocaine usage, can cause pancreatitis during pregnancy.
  • Certain medicines, such as corticosteroids and diuretics, can cause kidney stones.

Diabetic Retinopathy:

Diabetic retinopathy (die-uh-BET-ik ret-ih-NOP-uh-thee) is an eye disease caused by diabetes. Damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue in the rear of the eye causes this condition (retina).

Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy:

In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, no symptom is shown. As the disease worsens, you may experience:

  • Spots or black threads appear in your field of view (floaters)
  • Vision is hazy
  • The vision that shifts from one moment to the next
  • In your eyesight, there are dark or empty spaces.
  • Loss of vision

Major Causes of Diabetic Retinopathy:

Too much sugar in your blood can cause the small blood vessels that nourish your retina to get blocked over time, cutting off its blood supply.

As a result, the eye makes an effort to form new blood vessels. However, these new blood vessels do not grow correctly and are prone to leakage.

Diabetic retinopathy in its early stages. New blood vessels aren’t developing in this more frequent kind of diabetic retinopathy, known as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (proliferating).

The walls of the blood vessels in your retina deteriorate when you have NPDR. Small bulges emerge from the smaller vessels’ walls, occasionally spilling fluid and blood into the retina.

Larger retinal vessels may begin to dilate and become irregularly sized. As additional blood vessels get clogged, NPDR can develop from moderate to severe.

Diabetic retinopathy has progressed. It can develop into proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which is a more severe form. Damaged blood vessels seal off in this kind, leading the retina to produce new, aberrant blood vessels. These new blood vessels are fragile, and they may leak into the transparent, jellylike material that fills your eye’s center (vitreous).

Risk factors:

Diabetic retinopathy can affect everyone who has diabetes. The following factors might enhance your chances of acquiring the condition:

  • Your blood sugar level usually gets out of control.
  • Blood pressure that is too high
  • Tobacco usage during pregnancy High cholesterol
  • Being Black, Hispanic, or Native American has its advantages and disadvantages.

Also Read: How to Maintain Blood Sugar: Monitor and Test Blood Sugar

Diabetic foot:

Foot ulcers are a frequent consequence of diabetes that isn’t treated with diet, exercise, or insulin therapy. Ulcers are caused by the breakdown of skin tissue, which exposes the layers beneath.

They’re most frequent beneath your big toes and on the balls of your feet, and they can affect your entire foot, including the bones.

Foot ulcers can affect anybody with diabetes, but regular foot care can help avoid them. Diabetic foot ulcers are treated differently depending on etiology.

If you have any worries about your feet, go to your doctor to be sure it’s not a major condition, as infected ulcers can lead to amputation if left untreated.

Diabetic diet:

A diabetic diet consists of three meals each day, at regular intervals. This allows you to make better use of the insulin that your body generates or that you receive from a prescription.

A certified dietician can assist you in creating a diet that is tailored to your health objectives, preferences, and lifestyle. He or she can also discuss ways to enhance your eating habits with you.

Recommended diet:

  1. Healthy Carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, etc.
  2. Fiber-rich food, such as nuts, legumes, etc.
  3. Heart-healthy fish and good fats such as avocados, nuts, etc.

Food to avoid as a diabetic patient:

  • Saturated fats are fats that are high in saturated fats. Should avoid high-fat dairy items, as well as animal proteins like butter, beef, hot dogs, sausage, and bacon. Limit your intake of coconut and palm kernel oils as well.
  • Trans fats are unhealthy fats. Trans fats, which may be found in processed snacks, baked products, shortening, and stick margarine, should be avoided.
  • Rich-fat dairy products and animal proteins, egg yolks, liver, and other organ meats are all high in cholesterol. Aim for a daily cholesterol intake of no more than 200 milligrams (mg).
  • Aim for a daily sodium intake of fewer than 2,300 mg. If you have high blood pressure, your doctor may advise you to strive for even less.


In the conclusion, diabetes is a condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin to regulate and control the blood sugar level. There are mainly two types of diabetes: Type-I and Type-II. Also, this article discusses the topics like ketoacidosisdiabetic footdiabetic diet, and retinopathy. The symptoms of all the types are also listed in this article.

Related Questions : 

  • What are the symptoms of blood sugar?

You may encounter the following symptoms if your blood sugar level is too high:

Thirst increases

Frequent urination


Vomiting and nausea

Breathing problems

Stomach pain

Fruity odor on the breath

A very dry mouth

A pounding heartbeat

  • What is the main cause of diabetes?

Obesity and an inactive lifestyle are two of the most prevalent causes of type 2 diabetes, while not everyone with the disease is overweight. In the United States, these factors are responsible for 90 percent to 95 percent of diabetes cases.

  • What are the 6 symptoms of diabetes?

Urination has increased. Diabetes is a disease in which the body’s ability to control blood sugar (glucose) levels is impaired.

Excessive Thirst is a condition in which a person feels thirsty all of the time…

Vision is hazy…

Increased hunger…

Unexplained Weight Loss. …….


  • How can diabetes be treated and its consequences?

Diet, physical activity, medication, and regular screening and treatment for complications can all help to treat diabetes and delay or prevent its repercussions. What exactly is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that happens when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or when the body’s insulin is ineffectively used.

  • What happens to your body when you have diabetes?

Uncontrolled diabetes causes hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which causes catastrophic damage to many of the body’s systems, including the neurons and blood vessels, over time. Diabetes affected 8.5 percent of persons aged 18 and above in 2014.

You May Also Read: High Protein Snacks: 16 Protein-rich Snacks and 8 Recipes

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