Dengue Pronunciation: Symptoms, Diagnosis, PreventionSanjoy
In this article, we will provide information on the dengue virus including introduction, signs and symptoms, family lifecycle, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection caused by the dengue virus which is characterized by fever severe headache, muscle, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, and rash.
Severe forms of the disease, that is, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome principally affect children. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes, mainly of the species Aedes aegypti.
History and Introduction of Dengue:
The first record of a case of probable dengue fever is in the Chinese Medical Encyclopedia from the Jin dynasty. It refers to a water poison associated with flying insects.
The first recognized Dengue epidemics occurred almost simultaneously in Asia, Africa, and North America in the 1780s. Shortly after the identification and naming of the disease in 1779, the first confirmed case report dates from 1789.
Benjamin Rush coined the term break-bone fever because of the symptoms of myalgia and arthralgia.
The viral etiology at the transmission by mosquitoes was only deciphered in the 20th century. The socio-economic impact of World War II resulted in increased spread globally.
Nowadays, about 2.5 billion people or 40% of the world’s population live in areas where there is a risk of dengue transmission. Dengue spread to more than 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean.
Dengue Pronunciation in India:
In India, the disease is pronounced like this.
Dengue Pronunciation in Hindi:
Types of Dengue Fever:
Dengue occurs in two forms.
- Dengue fever, and
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Dengue fever is a severe flu-like illness that affects infants, young children, and adults but seldom causes death.
Signs and Symptoms:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a potentially deadly complication due to plasma leaking and fluid accumulation in respiratory distress. Severe bleeding or organ impairment is directed when a high fever is accompanied by the following symptoms.
- Sudden onset of high fever severe,
- headache (mostly in the forehead),
- Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement,
- Body aches and joint pains,
- Nausea or Vomiting.
Symptomatic Diagnosis of Dengue:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever should be suspected when a fever is accompanied by the following symptoms.
- Severe and continuous pain in the abdomen,
- Bleeding from the nose, mouth, and gums,
- Skin bruising,
- Frequent vomiting with or without blood,
- Black stools like coal tar,
- Excessive thirst,
- Dry mouth,
- Pale cold skin,
- Restlessness or sleepiness.
Warning signs arise 3 – 7 days after the first symptoms in conjunction with a decrease in temperature and include severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, and rapid breathing. Bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness, and blood vomit.
About Dengue Virus:
Dengue virus, a member of the family Flaviviridae and the genus flavivirus. It is a major human pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes.
There are four antigenically different serotypes of the virus dengue.
Characteristics of Dengue Virus:
Structural Characteristics of Dengue Virus:
Dengue virus is a 50 nanometers virus enveloped with a lipid membrane. There are 180 identical copies of the envelope. E-protein attached to the surface of the viral membrane by a short transmembrane segment.
Genomic Characteristics of Dengue Virus:
The virus has a genome of about eleven thousand bases that encodes a single large polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into several structural and non-structural mature peptides.
The 11 kilobits positive-sense RNA genome encodes 3 structural proteins. The virus particle consists of an RNA capsid, a protein complex surrounded by a bilayer lipid membrane. The proteins present on the surface of the immature dengue virus are E and M. The mature virus surface, on the other hand, contains E and M proteins.
Life Cycle of Dengue Virus:
A cell normally uses endosomes to take in large molecules and particles from outside of a cell for nourishment. By hijacking this normal process, the dengue virus can enter a host cell.
Once the virus has entered a host cell, it penetrates deeper into the cell while still inside the endosome. In the cytoplasm, the nucleocapsid opens to encode the viral genome. This process releases the viral RNA into the cytoplasm.
The viral RNA then hijacks the host cells’ machinery to replicate itself. The virus uses ribosomes on the hosts’ rough endoplasmic reticulum to translate the viral RNA. As a result, it produces viral polypeptide. This polypeptide is then cut to form the dengue proteins.
The newly synthesized viral RNA is enclosed in the core proteins forming a nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid enters the rough endoplasmic reticulum and is enveloped in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and surrounded by the M & E proteins. This step adds a viral envelope and protective outer layer.
Diagnosis of Dengue:
Diagnosis of acute or recent dengue infection can be established by testing serum samples during the first five days of symptoms or the early convalescent phase. Acute infection with the dengue virus is confirmed when the virus is isolated from serum or autopsy tissue specimens.
Or the specific dengue virus genome is identified by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase – Polymerase Chain Reaction) from serum or plasma.
Acute infections can also be laboratory confirmed by identification of dengue viral antigen or RNA autopsy tissue specimens by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical analysis.
Also, by seroconversion from negative to positive antibody to dengue or demonstration of a four-fold or greater increase in IgG antibody titers.
Treatment of Dengue:
There is no specific medication for the treatment of dengue infection. Persons who think they have dengue should use pain relievers and avoid aspirin. Take rest, drink plenty of fluids, and most importantly, consult a physician.
Prevention of Dengue:
In late 2015 and early 2016, the first dengue vaccine, the DAME vaccine by Sanofi Pasteur was registered in several countries for use in individuals of age 9-45 years living in endemic areas.
At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of the dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes.
Dengue pronunciation in India is spoken as ‘den-gee’ whereas, in Hindi, it can be spoken as ‘den-goo’. Also, read about the prevention, life cycle, treatment, symptoms, and diagnosis of the Dengue virus.